Artist Review Study PPT (updated 3/2)
Flash Card Images
1. YouTube video: Closed and open explanations of the Ghent Altarpiece
2. YouTube video: Arnolfini and His Bride. (symbols!)
3. YouTube video: Deposition
4. Additional, super helpful info on the Merode Altarpiece.
5. Want to learn more about van der Weyden's Deposition or the Last Judgment Altarpiece? Go to Khan Academy!
6. Check out Artble.com for additional info on 15th c. N. European Renaissance!
7. AWESOME website that allows you to look at the Ghent Altarpiece, photographed by the Getty in 100 BILLION pixels.
8. I hate to say it but Wikipedia did a pretty good job of describing Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delights. Click here for a very detailed description AND you should download this 7793 x 4409 pixeled photgraph of the triptych to see all the details and individual scenes. It's totally awesome and you can spend at least an hour looking at everything!
9. Take a closer look at some music from Hell from Bosch.
10. Read about the various panels of Grunewald's Isenheim Altarpiece.
11. Durer's Self-Portrait and the Protestant Reformation
1. Quote the quote in your response.
2. Fully identify an artwork to support your answer. Use 2 if necessary.
3. Give examples within the artwork to defend your answer.
4. Don't forget to answer the prompt.
Critic Robert Hughes has said about Jan van Eyck,
“Thus each object, each face and body in Jan van Eyck’s work is spiritualized by its almost total detail: his scrutiny goes beyond the concrete and waits for our symbolic imagination to catch up with it. The objects themselves are charged with symbolism; Jan van Eyck’s attitude to nature was medieval in that he seems to have regarded each created thing as a symbol of the workings of God’s mind, and the universe as immense structure of metaphors.”
Robert Hughes, The Complete Paintings of the The Van Eycks, Harry Abrams: NY, 1968, p. 6.
Defend or reject Hughes’s assertion by referring to at least one painting by van Eyck.
Causes of the Reformation
- The Reformation began in 1517 when a German monk and scholar named Martin Luther nailed a list of his complaints, the Ninety Five Theses, to the doors of All Saints Church in Wittenberg, Germany.
- One of the top discussions was the sale of indulgences (people buying their way into Heaven). Luther wanted reform clarification on spiritual issues.
- This led to a split in the Christian faith-
- Countries that were converted into Christianity the latest became Protestant: Germany, Scandinavia, & the Netherlands.
- Countries that had Christian traditions the longest stayed as Catholic: Spain, Italy, Portugal, & Poland
- Luther facilitated the lay public's access to biblical truths by translating the Bible into the vernacular.
- Calvinists were the main people that progressed the iconoclastic movement and destroyed paintings and sculptures of holy figures.
- Protestants believed that one could connect with God through the act of intervening on the behalf of another (basically intercession).
- Protestants believed that faith was deeply personal. Protestant churches were relatively plain, while the Catholic churches were heavily decorated with artworks to facilitate prayer, the act of repentance, and becoming closer to God.
- 1540's: The Catholic and Counter-Reformations begin.
- Ignatius Loyola established the Jesuits, a holy order that was organized in a military fashion. Required absolute faith and obedience. Jesuits swore to suppress Protestantism.
- Artists during this time are turning to portraits, like Durer, and printmaking is allowing artists more recognized internationally. Artworks are commodities and gaining huge popularity.
- Johann Gutenberg (1400-1468) popularized the printing press. Originally invented in China but Gutenberg was the first to make interchangeable moveable metal type from lead molds.
Differences between Italy & Northern Europe
- Oil Paint
3 reasons why oil paints are better:
a. Brighter colors
b. More details
c. Preservation is better
- Classical Antiquity